Kunle Tometi a Pharmacist, Entrepreneur and Public Health Advocate.
The World Sickle Cell Day is a United Nation’s recognized day to raise awareness about sickle cell disease (SCD) at a national and international level. On 22nd December 2008, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution that recognizes sickle cell disease as a public health issue and “one of the world’s foremost genetic diseases.” The resolution calls for UN member states to raise awareness about sickle cell on June 19th of each year.
In this article, I would be creating awareness on sickle cell disease, the causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention.
What is sickle cell disease (SCD)
Sickle cell anemia (sickle cell disease) is a disorder of the blood caused by inherited abnormal hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein within the red blood cells). The abnormal hemoglobin causes distorted (sickled) red blood cells.
SCD is more common in certain ethnic groups, including:
- People of African descent,
- Including African-Americans (among whom 1 in 12 carries a sickle cell gene)
- Hispanic-Americans from Central and South America
- People of Middle Eastern, Asian, Indian, and Mediterranean descent
- Approximately 2000 infants are born annually with the disease
- SCD affects approximately 200,000 Americans annually
- 1 in 365 African Americans
- 1 in 13 African Americans have the traits (carrying only 1 of the gene, S)
(CDC August 2017, Mayo Clinic)
Economics of SCD
10 years ago; Medical expenditure for children with SCD averaged $12,000 yearly for those with Medicaid and $15,000 yearly for those with commercial insurance.
There were also 113,000 hospitalizations costing over $500,000 paid by Medicare and Medicaid of which 75% of the visits were in adults and each with at least 3 Emergency Room visits per year. Children with SCD miss a minimum of 18 days per school year
Total healthcare costs nowadays for SCD is estimated at $2billion per year.
According to (David A.N et al 2018), ‘In Nigeria, the prevalence of SCD is 20–30/1000 live births. The burden of the disease has reached a level where it contributes 9–16% to under-five mortality in many West African countries. Hemoglobinopathies alone represent a health burden comparable to that of communicable and other major diseases’
Causes of SCD
Healthy red blood cells are round, and they move freely through small blood vessels to carry oxygen to all parts of the body. In SCD, the red blood cells become hard and sticky and look like a C-shaped called a “sickle” and they are not able to carry enough oxygen. When they travel through small blood vessels, they get stuck and clog the blood flow.
The sites most often affected by clogging or stacking of sickle cells are found in the lungs, liver, muscle, bone, spleen, eyes, and kidneys and other parts and tissues of the body: explains why patients complain of a lot of pain in these areas as the symptom of the disease.
Patients also have immunity suppression which leads to infections by bacteria, and viruses.
Symptoms of SCD includes;
- Excessive fatigue, irritability from anemia
- Jaundice (yellowing of eyes and skin), may also include retina damage
- Swelling and pain in hands, and feet, Pain in chest, back arms and legs, also damage of hip
- Frequent infections,
- Pain and problems in the spleen, (Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea)
- Delayed growth
- Stroke (20–30% of children stroke, 23% in African Americans)
- Genitalia (priapism, a constant erection, in which severe episodes may lead to impotency)
Treatment of Sickle Cell Anemia
Treatment of SCD pain or crisis is done in the following manner:
Rehydration: with IV fluids, helps Red blood cells return to normal shape
- Antibiotics: used to treat underlying infections. In some cases antibiotic prophylaxis, penicillins are recommended.
- Pain medications to treat acute pain
- Hydroxyurea: helps increase production of red blood cells
Immunization: Pneumococcal and Meningococcal vaccines have drastically reduced the rate of infections in SCD
Blood transfusion: improves oxygen and nutrients needed
Supplemental oxygen by mask makes breathing easier and improves oxygen levels in the blood
Bone marrow transplant: for severe complications and matching donors.
- Genetic counselling and testing (better before marriage and at pregnancy) can help prevent the likelihood of passing gene to your child
- Preventing infections can be achieved by practising simple hand washing techniques at every opportunity. Hand sanitiser gels and wipes are also available and affordable
- Immunisation is very important and one must assure shots and records are current to cut down on the rate of common infections.
- Re-hydration with fluids at all times is essential.
- Avoid staying in places with low concentration of oxygen, e.g. unpressurised air planes, or high altitudes
For more information about SCD, please speak to your Pharmacist or Doctor.
Article by Kunle Tometi a Pharmacist, Entrepreneur and Public Health Advocate.
- Mayo clinic https://www.gstatic.com/healthricherkp/pdf/sickle-cell-anemia.pdf
- CDC https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/sicklecell/data.html
- Sickle cell Disease: Public health agenda & Social, Economic and Health implications by CDR Althea M Grant, PhD September 2012
- Overview of the management & prognosis of sickle cell disease, Joseph Palermo, D.O.
- Economic impact of sickle cell Hospitalization. R Singh, Ryan Jordan and Charin Hanlon
- Prevalence and impact of sickle cell trait on the clinical and laboratory parameters of HIV infected children in Lagos, Nigeria
Prevalence and impact of sickle cell trait on the clinical and laboratory parameters of HIV infected children in Lagos, Nigeria.
Kasha Global Inc. secures $1 Million DFC equity investment to grow and scale across East Africa
Kasha Global Inc. beneficiaries (Source: DFC)
U.S. International Development Finance Corporation (DFC) today announced the disbursement of a $1 million equity investment in Kasha Global Inc., an e-commerce company that provides women’s health and personal care products to customers in Rwanda and Kenya, alongside investments from Finnfund and Swedfund. This investment was made through DFC’s Portfolio for Impact and Innovation (PI2) initiative, which aims to finance early-stage, high-impact solutions to challenges facing developing countries.
“High quality and equitable health services and products are fundamental to the wellbeing, and ultimately the economic potential, of women and girls in the developing world,” said Vice President for DFC’s Office of External Affairs Algene Sajery. “DFC is proud to support Kasha’s innovative business model, which is helping transform the personal care and health system supply chain in East Africa, and provide financing that strengthens economic growth in the region.”
“Kasha is excited to bring DFC on as an investor and as a long term partner,” said Kasha Global Founder & CEO Joanna Bichsel. “With the U.S. Government’s significant ongoing investments in the areas of Global Health and with DFC’s focus on supporting businesses proven to drive both commercial returns as well as social impact, we see strong win-win opportunities as Kasha continues to grow and scale across East Africa and beyond. We have been impressed with the level of support DFC is extending into emerging market businesses and into women-led and women-focused businesses.”
Many women in emerging markets lack access to safe, high-quality, and affordable health and personal care products as well as information surrounding these products. As products are often out of stock or counterfeit, the purchasing experience can be frustrating and disempowering for many women. Further, the stigma surrounding women’s health and personal care products in some cultures can have serious consequences. A UNESCO report estimates that one out of 10 girls in sub-Saharan Africa misses school during her menstrual period, amounting to as much as 20 percent of the school year.
Since 2016, Kasha has helped address women’s lack of access to health and personal care products by delivering a unique, discreet and user-friendly purchasing experience to the customers it serves. Through its e-commerce platform, Kasha has reconfigured the supply chain, delivery channel, and customer experience in order to meet demand. Kasha’s business-to-customer line of business directly sells products to customers in rural and urban locations across East Africa, especially low income communities. Kasha empowers over 400 local women to enter hard to reach communities to provide information and assist customers in purchasing products. The company’s business model is optimized to reach low income communities. Kasha has delivered over 1 million product units to over 130,000 unique customers, of which 63% are low income customers in Rwanda and Kenya.
Despite Kasha’s rapid growth and loyal customer base, fundraising is extremely challenging for start-ups in emerging markets, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. By investing $1 million in equity through the PI2 program, DFC aims to help Kasha fill the financing gap, providing the e-commerce company with the capital required to scale its business.
DFC’s investment advances its 2X Women’s Initiative, which has committed more than $4 billion of investment in projects that empower women in developing countries. The Kasha investment also qualifies for the 2X Challenge, an initiative of the G7 countries to support women’s economic empowerment. Kasha was co-founded by two women, 50 percent of Kasha’s senior leadership team are women, 75 percent of board members are women, 64 percent of Kasha’s employees are women, and the company’s products center around care for women and girls. Based on Kasha’s commitment to the 2X Challenge criteria, Kasha, DFC, Finnfund and Swedfund have signed a side letter which highlights Kasha’s 2X accomplishments and sets an example for other companies that seek to improve their businesses using the 2X Challenge criteria.
By focusing on innovative care delivery models and supply chain innovations, DFC’s financing also advances the agency’s Health and Prosperity Initiative, helping respond to COVID-19 and other health-related issues in Rwanda and Kenya.
Swedfund is Sweden’s development finance institution. Finnfund is the Finnish development finance institution.
Play Zuri Health launches its first mHealth App to help provide affordable and accessible healthcare solutions
Play Zuri Health Limited Mobile App (Source: Zuri Health)
Play Zuri Health Limited, a branch of the Play Communications Limited announced the launch of their first mobile app, Zuri Health; that can be downloaded from the Google Play Store, Apple Store as well as the Zuri Health website.
Zuri Health’s mission is to provide certified, affordable and accessible healthcare solutions via mobile with dedicated apps, wap and SMS services based on availability, location and specialization of the medical providers.
Users will have access to a myriad of professionals and services from across their home counties. They are able to book appointments instantly with any medical professional or hospital within their geographic regions, book laboratory tests, chat with the practitioners via both message and video as an added feature and request for home visits by the Licensed and Certified Medical Practitioners.
Under Pharmacy, users can get their prescription and over the counter medication online and have it delivered to their doorstep.
The SMS service functionality of Zuri Health has been designed to reach a wide range of individuals or users who may not have access to WAP or internet enabled devices.
The app’s code was written with the daily challenges patients face in the journey of seeking affordable and accessible healthcare solutions. We solve the problem of expensive and inconvenient hospital trips for small or minor diagnosis and prescriptions, long waiting times and queues during doctors’ visits and appointments scheduling and booking which can be tasking.
Through our mobile app, we also help doctors to tap into a wider market of on-demand patients and earn extra money while saving lives.
“Zuri Health App is very personal to me. Millions of people in Africa do not have access to quality medical care. At Zuri Health we have taken time to develop a product that will fill that gap, giving doctors a wider and easier platform to reach patients who need them. With Zuri Health the underserved populace can now access affordable and sustainable healthcare.” Arthur Ikechukwu Anoke- C.E.O and Co- Founder Zuri Health.
Daisy Isiaho Project Manager and Co-founder in an interview said, “In my view, there is an urgent need to drive more meaningful conversations in relation to frameworks around Telemedicine because in Africa very few countries have these yet its fundamental if we should achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.”
Since the beta launch in November 2020 the company’s predicted three year growth plan is to have more than 20,000 registered doctors listed, 250,000 premium users and at least 1,000,000 mobile downloads.
Adaku Efuribe: COVID-19 treatment and the dangers of drug misuse in Nigeria
Adaku Efuribe (Image credit: Adaku Efuribe)
Drug misuse is defined as the use of a substance for a purpose not consistent with legal or medical guidelines (WHO, 2006). It has a negative impact on health or functioning and may take the form of drug dependence, or be part of a wider spectrum of problematic or harmful behaviour (Department of Health, 2006).
At the moment there seems to be an increased risk of self-medication and drug misuse especially in countries where prescription only medicines could be bought without prescription. For instance, countries like Nigeria where some patent medicines dealers who are meant to sell GSL medicines end up dispensing pharmacy only medicines and prescription only medicines.
As soon as a new drug for managing COVID-19 is announced by mainstream media, people run off to the shops to buy these drugs, even people who have not tested positive for the coronavirus, indulge in self-medication in a bid to prevent contracting the virus.
I am worried about the recent announcement for Dexamethasone as a new drug for treating COVID 19. Information reaching me shows, following hours of announcing this drug by the media, some Nigerian resident has started trooping to their pharmacy, ‘chemist’ and illegal drug dealers to buy dexamethasone tablets.
Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid, it has high glucocorticoid activity, and it should not be used without the guidance of a clinician. According to the Electronic Medicines Compendium (EMC), depending on the dose and duration of therapy, adrenocortical insufficiency caused by glucocorticoid therapy can continue for several months and in individual cases more than a year after cessation of therapy.
Through immunosuppression, treatment with Dexamethasone can lead to an increased risk of bacterial, viral, parasitic, opportunistic and fungal infections. It can mask the symptoms of an existing or developing infection, thereby making a diagnosis more difficult. Latent infections, like tuberculosis or hepatitis B, can be reactivated.
Dexamethasone also has some side effects; the following side effects are common (occurring in greater than 30%) for patients taking dexamethasone:
· Increased appetite.
· Difficulty sleeping (insomnia)
· Swelling in your ankles and feet (fluid retention)
· Muscle weakness.
· Impaired wound healing.
· Increased blood sugar levels
If only the media companies understood the fact that prescription only medicines could be bought without prescription in some countries, they would thread carefully and choose appropriate wording when announcing potential drugs for COVID-19 treatment.
It’s the duty of the Ministry of health and drug regulatory bodies of those countries where prescription medication could be bought in the market like sweets to continue to create awareness, educate the general public on the dangers of self-medication, drug misuse and drug abuse. They must not relent in their efforts of managing drug distribution/regulation.
My advice to people living in countries where you could buy prescription only medicines without prescription is this:
Do not run off to buy the latest drug announced for COVID-19 treatment.
This drug is a corticosteroid and should only be taken if prescribed by a clinician.
Please do not indulge in medication misuse and abuse. It could lead to adverse effects or even death
Author: Adaku Efuribe is a Clinical Pharmacist & Global consultant in Medicines Management